Information is a valuable resource. Every manager needs to know that he is acquiring, producing and using information wisely and effectively in support of the organization’s goals and objectives. Managing information requires the imposition of order, structure and discipline within a strategic direction. Information management is aided by the availability of technologies, methodologies, and development tools.
The availability of new and modern Technology has vastly increases our ability to access resources, both those we own and control and those outside of our own sphere of influence. As information management becomes more important every day, managers will need to ensure that people within the organization get the information they need to do their job effectively. Competitive advantage of organizations is very much governed by the effectiveness with which we manage these information resources.
The project management information system (PMIS) contains the intelligence essential to the effective planning, organizing, directing, and control of the project. All too often projects are characterized by too many data and not enough relevant information on where the project stands relative to its schedule, cost and technical performance objectives as well as the project’s strategic fit in the parent organization’s strategies.
Information is essential to the design and execution of decisions allocating resources in the management of a project. Decisions coming out of the planning and control of the project must be based on timely and relevant information. Project managers and his team members require information by which intelligent decisions can be made and executed effectively. Information flow is a critical consideration in the speed and eloquence with which the efficient and effective use of resources is carried out in meeting the purpose of the enterprise.
The objectives of an information system is to provide the basis to plan, monitor, integrate project evaluation, and to show the interrelationships among cost, schedule, and technical performance for the entire project and for the strategic direction of the organization. In addition, information should provide a prospective view to identify project problems before they occur, so that they can be avoided or their impact minimized. Information is also required by the project team to continuously monitor, evaluate, and control the resources used on the project. There is also a need by senior management to be kept informed of the status of the project. The hardest part of any management job is not having all the necessary relevant information, yet having the responsibility of making the ‘right decision’.
In the construction industry, it is important that project information is shared between the project stakeholders so as to promote trust, empathy, and more mature relationships amongst them. Sharing of project information is one of the more important dimensions of keeping the team members working together cohesively and concurrently in the utilization of the project resources. Such sharing also facilitates the building of networks with the stakeholders through continuous interpersonal contact and dialogue.
Information provides the intelligence for managing the project. Information must be processed so that decisions can be made and executed. Information is essential to promote understanding, establish project objectives and strategies, develop mechanisms for control, communicate status, forecast future performance and resources, and changes recognized. Information is needed to prepare and use the project plan, develop and use budgets, create and use schedules, and lead the project team to a successful conclusion of the project. The project planning function establishes a structure and a methodology for managing the information resources which encompass defining, structuring, and organizing project information, anticipating its flow, reviewing information quality, controlling its use and source, and providing a focal point for the project’s information policies.
All companies have an integrated information system which includes estimating, job costing, accounting, payroll, and scheduling. A management information system is integrated by means of a cost code of accounts.
A project cost system must interface with accounting systems and report cost of material, labor, equipment and machineries (including overhead cost). The objective of a cost system is to track and forecast costs for comparison against budget. A material management system tracks materials from the requisition stage through to surplus disposal stage. Scheduling require several levels of reporting to meet the needs of the management hierarchy and therefore should be capable of the “roll-up” techniques. A scheduling system must be capable of scheduling all the activities, identify critical activities, level resources, progress tracking, and be produced graphically.
Reporting and feedback must be accurate and timely if it is to be effective for control purpose. Feedback must occur to the project team as well as management level. Management level reporting, that is for owners, contractors and project management teams, must provide statements of accomplishments versus planned cost and schedule objectives, forecast final costs and completion period. It should also review current and potential problems and indicates action taken to overcome the effects of the problems.
Weekly or monthly meetings are held to assess the progress on work. The review meetings are aimed at translating latest work status and critical problems into specific action plan. Weekly or bi-weekly (perhaps monthly) reports with information on the actual and ‘forecast to complete’ quantities of work serve as the agenda for the review meetings. By analyzing the actual manpower, material distribution, and equipment usage, the allocation and availability of resources can be adjusted.
Computer programs for project planning and control have been available for a long time. A software package must be able to meet the needs of a project. There are numerous commercial software packages available. Although most project management software programs can run on the basic PC computer system, users of programs with graphical user interfaces often require a more powerful system.